Genetic Knowledge

The human body comprises of 60 to 100 trillion cells. These cells work together to perform a specific function or group of functions like metabolism, respiration, growth, and reproduction. Different cell composition of different organizations and different organizations constitute the different organs.

The main structure of cell membrane is Cytolemma, Cytoplasm, and Nucleus. The human cell is small but it plays a very importanct role for the body structure, takes in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions.

Chromosome is an organized structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein that is found in cells. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Human cells have 23 pairs of large linear nuclear chromosomes, giving a total of 46 per cell. Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differs between males and females. Females have two copies of the X chromosome, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.

A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living orgnism. All living things depend on genes. Genes hold the information to build and maintain their cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. Genes made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins.

Genes are sections or segments of DNA that are carried on the chromosomes and determine specific human characteristics, such as your looks, height, weight, color (skin or hair), talent, personality, etc. Genes are the basic factors of life which is connected to human birth, age, sickness and death.

A gene is the basic instruction, a sequence of DNA, but not all long-chain of DNA has genetic information. Only a small portion of DNA contains genetic information that can be called genes.

The research results of modern medical science indicates that most diseases are determined by various environmental factors and genetic constitution. The normal function of a gene is to encode a protein. By changing a gene's instructions for making a protein, a mutation can cause the protein to malfunction or to be missing entirely. When a mutation alters a protein that plays a critical role in the body, it can disrupt normal development or cause a medical condition.

For example, a variety of tumors is caused by genes such as oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, etc. It may be caused due to the accumulationof mutations from external factors. Another example, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and other diseases are related to mutations that have a close relationship with certain genes.

Some disorders, such as albinism, hemophilia and Huntington's disease, are caused by mutations in a single gene, so called monogenic diseases.

Common medical problems such as diabetes, hypertension and most types of cancers do not have a single genetic cause as they are likely associated with the effects of multiple genes in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors. Conditions caused by many contributing genes are called polygenic diseases.

Biochips are essentially miniaturized laboratories that can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous biochemical reactions. Biochips enable researchers to quickly screen large numbers of biological analyses for a variety of purposes, from disease diagnosis to detection of bioterrorism agents.

A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher output and speed.

Since a biochip can contain tens of thousands of probes, a microarray experiment can accomplish that many genetic tests in parallel.

Biochip technology has been named as one of the top ten in world's scientific and technological breakthroughs in year 1998 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS.

Its scope of application includes

  1. Determination of gene function
  2. Pharmaceutical research
  3. Gene mutation detection
  4. Pathogen detection
  5. Genetic disease testing
  6. Product testing
  7. Military, Forensic test
  8. Agriculture, forestry
  9. Environmental protection
  10. Paternity testing
  11. Personal identification service
  12. Family gene identification spectrum of services
  13. Criminal identification systems